Cichorium endivia L.
Both escarole (also called chicória in Portuguese) and curly endive have leaves that are tougher, darker and bitter than lettuce. In Brazil,
escarole was first cultivated when the Portuguese royal family moved to the country in the nineteenth century, and then spread with the arrival
of Italian immigrants. It is very common, in the country, to use shredded, sautéed escarole in pizza toppings or to fill pastries such as sfiha, fatayer and quiches. Raw, it is used chopped in salads and green juices. Escarole and curly endive are high in vitamins B, C and E, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and potassium. The best times for consumption in Brazil are the months of February, March, April and August.